18-10-2017 | director.dgr@icar.gov.in

भाकृअनुप - मूँगफली अनुसंधान निदेशालय ICAR - Directorate of Groundnut Research

Dgr

Dgr

Dgr

Dgr

Unit / Division

Staff of Crop Improvement Unit:
The Crop Improvement Unit comprised of six scientists and eight Technical Officers. At present the following scientists and technical officers are in position:
Major programme

SN Name Designation
1 Dr. A.L. Rathnakumar Principal Scientist and Head
2 Dr. S.K. Bera Principal Scientist, Genetics and Cytogenetics
3 Sh. Abhay Kumar Scientist, Plant Biotechnology (on study leave)
4 Dr. Narendra Kumar Scientist (SS), Plant Breeding
5 Dr. Ajay BC Scientist (SS), Plant Breeding (Anantpur)
6 Dr. Gangadhara K Scientist, Plant Breeding
7 Dr. Chandramohan Sangh Scientist, Plant Biotechnology
8 Sh. H.B. Lalwani Assistant Chief Technical Officer
9 Dr. H.K. Gor Assistant Chief Technical Officer
10 Dr.J.R. Dobaria Assistant Chief Technical Officer
11 Sh. B.M. Chikani Assistant Chief Technical Officer
12 Sh.G.J. Solanki Senior Technical Assistant
13 Sh. A.D. Makwana Technical Assistant
14 Sh. Pitabas Das Technical Assistant
15 Sh. Anil K Maurya Technical Assistant
  • Breeding for tolerance of abiotic stresses in groundnut
  • Breeding for resistance to major diseases and insect pests in groundnut
  • Genetic improvement in groundnut for large-seed size and confectionery traits
  • Enhancement and management of groundnut genetic resources
  • Developing transgenic resistance in groundnut to abiotic stresses and viral diseases
  • Development and association of molecular markers for resistance to biotic stresses in groundnut
  • Utilization of wild Arachis gene pools for groundnut improvement

Achievements of Crop Improvement

  • 9129 accessions of all the four botanical varieties representing 87 countries including India are being maintained in the medium term cold storage module. The same set of accessions have also been deposited with NBPGR as base collection.
  • 6060 germplasm accessions collected by Indian Researchers till 1976, which were donated to ICRISAT for further multiplication and distribution to NARS, were repatriated, multiplied and restored in sufficient quantity. The same has also been deposited with NBPGR.
  • A field gene bank comprising 105 accessions of 40 wild species representing six sections of the genus Arachis are being maintained. The seeds of these valuable accessions are also being deposited with NBPGR from time to time.
  • A mini-core collection comprising 167 accessions have been developed based on 30 morphological characters which represent the maximum spectrum of variability present in about 4000 germplasm accessions
  • A reference set of 189 accessions having high water use efficiency have been developedbased on morphological characters, thermo tolerance, stomatal conductance, ∆C13, low SLA and high SCMR
  • 195 varieties released in India from 1905 to till date have been assembled and are being maintained ever season
  • Several elite germplasm accessions tolerant of key biotic and abiotic stresses and those possessing few quality traits (large seeds, high oil, protein) were identified, multiplied and  distributed to scientists of NARS
  • Thirty-three novel germplasm accessions for unique traits have been registered with NBPGR (Table 1)
  • Identified six perennial fodder purpose wild Arachis species for wasteland development
  • Five accessions (NRCGs 7040, 6999, 1476, 12328, 3817) which recorded high oil content ( >54%) have been identified
  • One accession (Ah 347/5) which recorded the lowest oil content (44.4%) and three accessions, (NRCGs 7063, 7128 and 5239) which recorded both high protein (35%) and sugar contents (~6.5%) have been identified.
  • Nine accessions [NRCGs 14367 (FST), 14403 (FST), 14419 (FST), 14450 (FST), 14481 (FST), 14484 (FST), 14360 (HYB) 14341 (HYR), and 14383 (VUL)] which exhibited 100% germination under 12oC have been identified.
  • Developed 584 interspecific / intersectional pre-breeding lines for introgression of alleles /genes for resistance to major biotic stresses from wild species to cultivated groundnut.
  • Screened and catalogued about 3000 germplasms under residual moister situation of rice fallow of Orissa; Recommended suitable cultivars for cultivation in both rabi and kharif seasons for Orissa.
  • Germplasm for high yielding, short duration, large kernel size, tolerance of drought were identified under rice fallow situation of Orissa.
  • Introgressed stem rot resistance gene from wild Arachis species to cultivated groundnut. The pre-breeding line CS19, resistant to stem rot disease has been registered in 2004 which is currently the only stable source for resistance to stem rot and is being used as donor parent for breeding stem rot resistant groundnut.
  • Developed aneuploid stocks form interspecific hybrid populations; proposed basic chromosome number of genus Arachis may be less than 10 and Cytogenetical basis of hybrid sterility.
  • Protocols for anther culture and differentiation of anther derived calli has been standardized and preliminary success has been achieved to develop anther derived plant from variety GG-2.
  • Nucleotide sequences (i. bankit1384528HQ191219 obtained from RAPD analysis of a drought resistant Arachishypogaea cultivar TMVNLM-2) and ii. bankit1384538HQ191220 obtained from RAPD analysis of a drought resistant Arachisglabrata accession were submitted to the GenBank.
  • Molecular marker associated with large kernel size were Identified in groundnut; Na+/K+ and WRKY genes associated with tolerance to salinity were identified in groundnut;
  • Promising wild Arachis accessions from tertiary gene pool were identified and reported for surrogate traits of tolerance to drought in groundnut.
  • For the first time Pre-breeding genotype (NRCGCS 281) with large kernel mass (>80g /100 kernels) in Spanish background (erect and 100 days duration) has been developed.
  • Pre-breeding lines (NRCGCS 574) immune to rust and LLS has been developed through interspecific breeding
  • A Virginia bunch bold seeded variety ‘Girnar 2’ with huge export potential was developed and released for kharif cultivation in north-western zone (Northern Rajasthan, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh) in 2008 and has also been registered with the Registrar, PPVFRA, New Delhi with its Registration No. 28 of 2014.
  • A Spanish bunch Variety ‘Girnar 3’ endowed with 3-weeks fresh seed dormancy – a rare attribute found in Spanish groundnuts was identified in 2009 and released in 2010 for kharif cultivation in Manipur, West Bengal and Odisha states  and is under the process of registration with the Registrar, PPVFRA, New Delhi.
  • A variety Raj Mungfali 3 (RG 559-3) under process of release from ARS, Durgapura; the breeding material was developed under this and supplied to this centre in F6 generation.
  • Inheritance pattern of surrogates (SLA, SCMR, Δ13C, Δ18O and HI) of water-use efficiency worked out (first reports w.r.t. SCMR, Δ13C, Δ18O in the literature)
  • Development of a mapping population for water-use efficiency traits: A mapping population of 188 RILs was derived from a cross between ‘TAG 24’ and ‘TMV 2NLM’ for mapping surrogates (SCMR and SLA) of water-use efficiency. This population has been phenotyped during two kharif and two summer seasons.
  • Development of groundnut genotypes with tolerance of end-of season drought stress: Nine groundnut advanced breeding lines(PBS 21095, PBS 21087, PBS 16038, PBS 26019, PBS 26015, PBS 240022, PBS 11084, PBS 11058 and  JUN 27) developed for enhanced water-use efficiency, possess high levels of tolerance of  end-of season drought tolerance.  (DGR AR 2009-10 pp. 10)
  • Developed Spanish advanced breeding line (PBS 16038) with fresh seed dormancy of 3-weeks
  • Developed a method for assessment of early maturity in groundnut based on per cent reduction in yield by advancing date of harvest

Table 1. Novel Germplasm registered with NBPGR:

Unit

The Crop Protection Unit comprised of nine scientists (one Principal Scientist, three Senior Scientists and four scientists) and three Technical Officers. At present the following scientists and technical officers are in position:

  1. Dr. Ram Dutta — Pr. Scientist and Head
  2. Dr. P.P. Thirumalaisamy — Scientist (SS), Plant Pathology
  3. Sh. Harish, G. — Scientist, Agril. Entomology (on study leave)
  4. Dr. K.S. Jadon — Scientist (SS), Plant Pathology
  5. Sh. Nataraja, M.V. — Scientist, Agril. Entomology
  6. Sh. V.G. Koradia  — Assistant Chief Technical Officer
  7. Dr. S.D. Savaliya — Assistant Chief Technical Officer
  8. Dr. M.V. Gedia — Assistant Chief Technical Officer
  9. Sh. R.D. Padavi — Technical Officer

Disciplines 
Entomology, Plant Pathologyand Nematology

Major Programs 

  • Development of management module for soil-borne diseases of groundnut
  • Development of management practices for foliar diseases in groundnut
  • Development of practices for management of aflatoxin contamination in groundnut
  • Management of insect- pests of groundnut

Current activities  

  • Effect of trap color and height on sucking pest incidence
  • Influence of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on the incidence of sucking pests
  • Effect of groundnut based inter cropping systems on sucking pest incidence
  • Integrated management of major foliar fungal (Early Leaf Spot, Late Leaf Spot and Rust) and soil-borne diseases (Collar rot and Stem rot)of groundnut through cultural practices, fungicides, botanicals, soil-amendments and bio-control agents
  • Management of aflatoxin contamination using crop rotation, bio-control, soil amendments and botanicals.
  • Screening of groundnut varieties/germplasms /advance breeding lines for resistance to major foliar fungal (Early Leaf Spot, Late Leaf Spot and Rust) and soil-borne diseases (Collar rot and Stem rot) of groundnut.

CROP PROTECTION

ACHIEVEMENTS

PLANT PATHOLOGY

Soil-borne Diseases

  • Early sowing (June) of groundnut reduces the incidence of collar rot, stem rot and bud necrosis with closed spacing (22.2×7.5/10 cm).
  • First report of ‘incidence of Sclerotiumrolfsii on groundnut foliage’ was brought in1991.
  • Soil application of Trichoderma viride@ 62.5kg/ha supported maximum control of stem rot followed by seed treatment with viride@ 4g/kg of seed.
  • Soil application of castor cake @ 500 kg/ha in furrow at the time of sowing reduced incidence of stem rot and collar rot by 50% or above and increased the monetary benefit in comparison to farmers practice.
  • Soil application of fresh leaves of Partheniumhystarophorus, Azadirachtaindica, Pongamiapinnattaand Sorghum halepense @ 500kg/ha at the time of sowing reduced incidence of stem rot considerably with higher pod yield as compared to control under field condition during rainy season.
  • Three genotypes, NRCG CS 19, NRCG CS 319, have been identified as resistant source for rolfsii.
  • Verticilliumlecaniias bio-agent was found effective for foliar and soil borne disease management in groundnut.
  • Summer ploughing and soil solarization shown to reduce the incidence of stem rot in groundnut.
  • Application of arbuscularmycorrhiza in seed furrow reduces the stem rot and increases the plant growth.
  • Bio-agent Trichodermaharzianum isolate T-170, mouldboard plough and soil solarization with transparent polythene sheets were effective for management of stem rot disease.
  • Different genotypes were screened for resistance to stem rot and collar rot pathogens in sick soil. The lowest disease incidence was recorded in CS 405.

Foliar fungal Diseases

  • A new leaf blight disease caused by Alternariatenuissimawas reported in 1982 in groundnut.
  • Studies on aerobiology of leaf spot and rust pathogens shown the existence of diurnal periodicity with peak catches of conidia at dew dry-off in the morning and urediniospres peak catches around noon.
  • Early planting (15 days prior to normal sowing) with spacing of 45x10cm and intercropping with red gram and castor or sorghum or pearl millet shown to reduce leaf spots and rust intensity.
  • Mycoparasites, Dicymapulvinata and Verticilliumlecanii and their culture filtrates reduced the spore germination, lesion size and number of lesions of late leaf spot.
  • Maximum inhibition of in-vitro germination of urediniospores and significant in-vivo reduction in development of rust was exhibited by lecaniiand Penicilliumislandicumand their culture filtrates. The inoculation of mycoparasites and rust together on the same day gave better control of rust. Sprays of culture filtrates of V. lecanii and P. islandicum significantly reduced rust disease under field conditions.
  • Aqueous leaf extracts of neem and mehandi @ 2% were found to be effective and economical in controlling leaf spots and rust of groundnut. Neem leaf extracts was also effective to Alternaria
  • Outbreak of Alternaria blight was recorded in summer groundnut during 2009.
  • Groundnut is a sodium sensitive crop, it can be grown profitably up to a salinity of 2.0 dS m-1 and irrigation water salinity (ECiw) of 2.5 dS m-1 in black clayey soil as at this salinity the severity of foliar diseases were less and the pod yield was maximum.
  • Identified Difenaconazole 25EC and Tebuconazole 25.9EC for management leaf spots and rust.
  • Alternaria alternata was identified as causes of leaf blight in summer groundnut in Saurashtra and leads to high severity, if groundnut is grown in the vicinity of cotton. Identified fungicides Tebuconazole 50% + Trifloxystrobin 25%and Metiram 55% + Pyraclostrobin 5%for the management of Alternaria
  • Minimum leaf spots and rust incidence was recorded in genotype CS-113, and was identified as potential donor parent.

Virus Diseases

  • New tasks like transmission mechanism of tomato spotted wilt virus, the causal agent of peanut bud necrosis disease (PBND) by Scirtothripsdorsalis and Frankliniellaschultzeiin1981 have been undertaken.
  • Application of dimethoate 30EC foundto reduce the incidence of PBND.

Aflatoxin Contamination

  • The varieties ICGS11 and S206 supported less (35-40%) infection and colonisation of aflatoxigenicAspergillusflavus. The lowest aflatoxin content was recorded in Chitra (3,200 ppb), while it was highest in Kaushal (38,250 ppb). A cross derivative of GAUG1 × NCAc 17133 R F showed lowest (25-28%) infection and colonisation and supported moderate aflatoxin production (4,000 ppb). Among germplasm lines spancross supported lowest aflatoxin production (2,026 ppb) while both the wild species viz. ICG 8127 and ICG 8128 were highly susceptible to infection, colonisation, and aflatoxin production.CutivarsNCAc 927, 17133, 17149, PI 341879 and 393646 were identified as resistant to ELS and Robut 33-1 (1985), ICG 329 (1995) to PBND.
  • Blanching used in conjunction with manual and electronic sorting indeed is very effective in eliminating aflatoxin-contaminated kernels. A sequential sorting of bulk groundnuts being practiced by a few Indian industries using mechanical screening, electronic eye sorting followed by manual sorting of discoloured kernels is a good measure to get rid of aflatoxins in the final product. Hence, it is suggested that the groundnut industries involved in processing and value addition should invariably follow the sequential sorting procedures to ensure the supply of aflatoxin free groundnut to consumers.
  • Groundnut in rotation with onion or garlic shown to reduce aflatoxin contamination in groundnut.
  • While processing the groundnut, the critical point was identified in wet processing e. wetting of pods to soften the shell, increases the probability of aflatoxin contamination in kernels.
  • Common salt or rock salt at the concentration of 20% or baking soda at 2% adversely affected the germination of flavus spores and also colony growth.
  • Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of isolates of flavus for grouping them into most toxic, toxic and non-toxic strains have been undertaken.
  • In summer, the population of flavus was smaller compared to kharif. The decrease in soil population of A. flavus in summer could be attributed to rise in soil temperature and rotation with crops or fallow, soil amendments, bioagents, botanicals and fungicide. Infection of A. flavus on pods was higher than on kernels irrespective of the season. The aflatoxin contamination in kernels varied widely among the samples and the treatments.
  • In kharif groundnut, flavus infection in freshly stripped pods was lower than the left over pods collected from soil. Aflatoxin contamination was detected in almost all the gleaned pod samples. The rainfed groundnuts grown during kharif acquire high A. flavus infection and subsequent contamination with aflatoxin than the groundnut grown in summer under irrigated condition.
  • Pods stored upto 6 months at room temperature (28±2 degree C) in high density polythene lined gunny bags has lesser flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination compared to pods stored in gunny bags (jute bags), nonetheless no difference was observed when pods stored either in gunny bags or in high density polythene lined gunny bags at 15±2 degree C.
  • Rotation with maize or sorghum or fallow in summer followed by groundnut in kharif reduced the population of Aspergillus flavus in soil, and not the aflatoxin contamination.
  • Aflatoxin contamination was detected in all the gleaned pod samples and 48% of freshly harvested samples. Above 4ppb was detected in 66.7% gleaned pod samples and 3.7% in freshly harvested samples. Maximum contamination of aflatoxin was 23ppb and 6ppb in gleaned pods and freshly harvested pods, respectively.

ENTOMOLOGY

Defoliators (Tobacco caterpillar, Gram pod borer, Hairy caterpillars and Leafminer)

  • The sex pheromone @ 10:20:14 composition of (R)-(Z)-7, 9-Decadienyl acetate, E7-Decenyl acetate and Z7-Decenyl acetate with wota-T trap surface smeared with castor oil proved effective in trapping the male moths of leafminer (Aproaerema modicella).
  • The modified trap was developed with reduced distance between the funnel and lid (from 4 to 2 cm) increased the efficiency in trapping the male moths of gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera.
  • The per cent loss in pod yield due to the artificial defoliation by tobacco caterpillar,Spodoptera litura and gram pod borer, armigera varied from 21 to 25 during vegetative, 18 to 41 during pegging and 16 to 57 during maturity stage.

Sucking pests (Thrips, Leafhoppers and Aphids)

  • Bajra/pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) as border crop (2 rows) along with 2% crude neem oil protects crop from thrips.
  • The yellow sticky tray trap was found effective in trapping adult populations of both the leafhopper and thrips.
  • Spraying spore suspension of Beauveria bassiana and Verticillium lecanii at 2.0 g/lt to manage the leafhopper and thrips populations, respectively.
  • Seed treatment with imidacloprid 17.8 SL or thiamethoxam 25 WG at 2.0 g/kg seed gave protection to groundnut crop till 40 days from the sucking insect pests.
  • Two foliar spray at 30 and 45 days after sowing with neo-nicotinoids viz. imidacloprid 17.8 SL (0.4 ml/lt), acetamiprid 20 SP (0.5 g/lt) and thiamethoxam 25 WG (0.4 g/lt) found effective in managing the sucking insect pests of groundnut in general.
  • Bajra intercropped with groundnut (1:3) harboured lowest population of thrips, leafhoppers and aphids.
  • The bio-pesticide, ponneem at 6.0 m1/lt was found effective in reducing leafhopper and thrips populations.
  • Foliar spray of acephate 25% + fenvalerate 3% at 1.0 ml/lt at 30 and 45 days after germination was effective in reducing the leafhopper and thrips populations.

Storage pests (Bruchids, Flour Beetles and Rice Moths)

  • Combination of 30±5ºC and >70% RH was found to be most congenial for bruchid, Caryedon serratus (Olivier) growth and multiplication.
  • Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) was found most suitable for mass multiplication of bruchids in laboratory.
  • On an average 1.9 adults only can emerge/kernel irrespective of the density of eggs.
  • A positive relation was observed between the number of exit holes/kernel and the adult emergence.
  • The jasmine oil, parthenium powder, lantana (Lantana camara) leaf powder and custard apple seed powder @ 1.0% and endosufan 35EC @ 2.0 ml/lt were found effective in reducing the bruchid oviposition and the adult emergence, respectively.
  • The castor oil, pongamia oil and eucalyptus oil @ 10% (v/w) and neem oil @ 5% (v/w) were found effective in reducing the bruchid oviposition and also the loss in pod weight.
  • The super grain bags (78µm thickness) protected the stored groundnut up to 4 months period from the bruchids.

Integrated Pest Management

  • State-wise IPM modules were developed comprising of basal application of castor cake @ 500 kg/ha (time of application as per the local practice) + seed treatment with Trichodermasp. @ 4g/kg seed (locally available formulation) + intercropping (Andhra Pradesh: Groundnut + Redgram (7:1), Gujarat: Groundnut + Castor (3:1), Maharashtra: Groundnut + Soybean (4:1), Tamil Nadu: Groundnut + Castor (4:1) and Karnataka: Groundnut + Bajra (3:1)) + border crop of castor/bajra (collect egg mass and young larvae of Spodoptera litura)+ need based application of crude neem oil (2%) + bird perches 50/ha + pheromone traps 10/ha + application of NPV @ 1.5 X 1013/ha when the larvae are 1st to 3rd instars + for leaf miner spray, NSKE @ 5% (if necessary one spray of recommended chemical  when the pest is observed in mining stages) + for red hairy caterpillar (field drenching, trapping the larvae with calotropis branches and poison baiting (5 kg rice bran + 500 g jaggery + 500 ml quinalphos 25EC).

Nematology

Plant-parasitic nematodes

  • The infection of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria and root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus was detected in groundnut fields of Rajkot district (Gujarat) and West Midnapore region (West Bengal), respectively. The damage and reproductive potential of root-knot nematode, M. arenaria and M. incognita and their reactive oxygen species modulation in groundnut have been worked out.
  • Soil drenching with fluorescent pseudomonads (Pf1 and Pf3 strains) was found effective in reducing the nematode egg hatching and juvenile mortality in Meloidogyne arenaria and incognita.

Entomo-pathogenic nematodes

  • Two virulent entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), Heterorhabditis and Steinernema carpocapsaewere found to be effective against larvae of S. litura.
  • The mermithid nematode parasitizing larva of Helicoverpa armigera(~40% parasitism) was recorded in groundnut fields of Junagadh district (Gujarat).

Water Management, fertigation and mulching

  1. Scheduling of irrigation can be done better on the basis of depletion of available soil moisture or on the ratio of irrigation water and cumulative pan evaporation (IW/CPE). The ratio of (IW/CPE) of 0.8 wasfound optimum for scheduling irrigation in groundnut.
  2. Use of crop residue mulch @5 t/ha helped to reduce irrigation requirement and increased pod yield of summer groundnut.
  3. Pre-monsoon sowing with one or two irrigations before the onset of monsoon was found to increase pod yield substantially.
  4. The significantly higher pod yield was recorded in IRWH over flat bed. However, the order of pod yield was IRWH (1797 kg/ha) > FBSS (1785 kg/ha) > BBF > FB.
  5. Black polythene mulch was found to enhance seed germination, nodulation, nitrogen fixation, biomass production and pod yield (over 15%) significantly in rabi-summer season. Retention of the wheat straw mulch in combination with black polythene up to pod development stage further increased the pod yield in summer groundnut.
  6. Irrigation water can be applied at 6-day intervals through drip or 15-day intervals through check basin method without significant reduction in yield and economic returns over 4-day intervals through drip or 10-day intervals through check basin method during summer groundnut. Further, fertigation with 75% NPK resulted in saving of 25% fertilizers besides improving the productivity and economic returns. Drip irrigation also saved 33.2% irrigation water over conventional method.
  7. Use of polythene mulch significantly improved pod and haulm yields of kharif groundnut by 5 and 20.7% over no mulch, respectively. Application of 75% NPK through drip significantly improved pod and haulm yields by 12.0 and 18.9% over 50% NPK. Thus, effecting saving of 25% NPK with drip irrigation over RDF with check basin method of irrigation.

Weed Management

  1. Pre-sowing soil incorporation of alachlor @1.5 kg ai/ha, or pre-emergence application of pendimethalin @1.0 kg ai/ha along with 2 intercultural opertions at 30 and 45 days after sowing have been recommended for effective and economical control of weeds in groundnut.
  2. The weed population decreased with narrowing row spacing and pairing of rows (30-60-30 cm) could decrease dry matter of weed by 26.7% compared to single row planting.
  3. Altering land configuration like ridge and furrow, and broad bed and furrow decreased weed population and increased groundnut.
  4. Application of surface mulches like organic residues or polythene mulch also helped in reducing weed population in groundnut.
  5. Combination of weedicides Lasso and TOK E 25 @1.5 kg a.i./ha with suitable agronomic practices could control weeds effectively and gave higher monetary returns.
  6. Based on results of two years’ experimentation (kharif 1988-89) on planting pattern and weed control, it was concluded that both the factors significantly effected pod yield and weed dry matter; moreover treatments of paired row planting and weed free condition were found as most effective.

Nutrient Management

  1. Fertilizer was found to be the most critical production factor limiting groundnut production during kharif. The other important critical factors were: improved variety, plant density, and plant protection.
  2. Wheat straw mulch @ 5 t/ha was found to increase pod yield by 23% over the control in rabi-summer season by making available optimal quantities of nutrients and retaining sufficient soil moisture. It also maintained higher organic carbon content in soil than unmulched crop.
  3. Early planting with an increased dose of fertilizer and a plant density of 4.4 lakh/ha was found to increase pod yield by 34% as compared to conventional practice.
  4. It was observed that water hyacinth (Eichorniacrassipes) a common aquatic weed, could be successfully used as a source of organic manure in groundnut production.
  5. Single super phosphate (SSP) was found to be the most suitable form of phosphorus for increasing production.
  6. A number of varieties were evaluated for fertilizer responsiveness during summer and kharif 1982-1984. Among the many varieties tested, GAUG-1, TG-17, TMV-12, M-13, S-206, TG-1, Kisan, Gangapuri and C-501, DH 3-30, SB-XI, TMV-12 and MH 1 were more responsive to higher fertility levels.
  7. Based on the continuous field trials (1989-90) studying the effect of gypsum application on groundnut yield showed that the application of gypsum @ 750 kg/ha at peak flowering stage of crop as top dressing was most effective to increase yield and yield attributes. Though the residual effect of gypsum on pod yield was not evident but a significant cumulative effect of gypsum of previous two years was observed while repeated the similar experiment in the next year (1991).
  8. Based on the field trials (Rabi-summer, 1993-95) to study the effect of mulching with N treatment on soil nutrient availability revealed that soil N was higher in wheat straw mulch over black polythene mulch at both 30 and 60 DAS with basal application, while no significant changes in soil P and K content was observed.
  1. Application of 37.5 kg N, 30.8 kg Pand 24.9 kg K/ha improved summer groundnut yield over RDF (25:22:0 kg NPK/ha) besides improving soil fertility.
  2. Maximum pod yield of summergroundnut was obtained with the application of 40-60-60 kg NPK (AS-SSP-MOP)+10:2:1 kg Fe Zn B/ha over the other combinations of treatments.
  3. Application of 20-40-30 kg NPK (urea-DAP-MOP)+250 kg gypsum+10:2:1 kg Fe Zn B/ha produced maximum pod yield while haulm yield was maximum in treatment 12.5:25:0 kg recommended NPK + 5 t +500 kg gypsum/haduring kharif season.
  1. Application of 25 kg N, 26.4 kg Pand 24.9 kg K/ha significantly improved the productivity of kharifgroundnut over RDF (12.5 kg N and 17.6 kg P/ha).

Cropping systems

  1. Intercropping groundnut with sunflower resulted in a further increase in pod yield by 18%. Criss-cross planting of groundnut was found to result in 14% increase in yield over the normal planting.
  2. By intercropping sunflower (one row) with paired row planting of groundnut, total oil production per unit area and time could be increased by 42% and 20% over sole crop of groundnut planted with normal and paired-row systems of planting, respectively. The optimum time for planting sunflower as an intercrop with groundnut was found to be 30 days after the sowing of groundnut.
  3. Over three years’ experimentation (1988-90) on plating pattern (normal and paired row) and intercropping (with Sesamum, sunflower and castor) with groundnut revealed that sunflower was found to be most suitable intercrop. Paired row planting was most effective in terms of pod yield and economics. Inclusion of intercrop with groundnut enhanced total oilseed output, oil yield and profit.
  4. Pod yield of groundnut was the highest (2820 kg/ha) when fenugreek was intercropped and lowest with spinach. Fresh vegetable yield was the highest in radish followed by spinach. Highest net returns and B:C ratio (4.60) were recorded in intercropping with radish
  5. Sole groundnut yielded 39.9% less under triphosphate than monophosphate. Pigeon pea yielded significantly higher in triphosphate than monophosphate. Groundnut yielded under intercrop did not vary significantly among the three sources of phosphorus.
  6. The highest total system productivity in terms of groundnut pod equivalent yield (2451 kg/ha) and net returns (` 33541/ha) were obtained with groundnut with FYM (5 t/ha)+50% RDF, wheat with FYM (5 t/ha)+50% RDF and green manuring with green gram in the groundnut-wheat-green gram cropping system The sustainable yield index was highest (SYI=0.92) in groundnut (FYM+50% RDF)-wheat (100% RDF).

Other practices

  1. For summer groundnut, sowing time, planting density and balanced fertilizer were found as critical production factors. Second fortnight of January was found to be the optimum.
  2. Paired-row planting (with a gap of 22.5 cm between two rows of a pair and 45 cm between pairs) was found to be more efficient in accumulating dry matter and biomass production than the traditional systems and also supported lesser weed population. It increased pod yield by 20-27% over the wide row system (90 cm between rows) practiced in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat state. The method is being adopted in several areas of the Saurashtra.
  3. Among the varieties, Kadiri 3 showed its superiority over other varieties in paired row planting.
  4. By changing the planting pattern from set-row with 90 cm between rows, as practiced in Saurashtra, to a paired-row with constant seed rate, the yield could be increased substantially. Results of demonstrations conducted at farmers’ fields in Junagadh and Amreli districts of Gujarat revealed an increase in yield by 20-27% due to paired-row system over farmer’s practice.
  5. Pod losses during harvest, is a serious problem, especially in case of spreading varieties. The losses were recorded in the range of 15-26% in the farmers’ fields of Saurashtra region of Gujarat. Pod losses could be minimized by maintaining a soil moisture potential of -0.4 bar during harvesting period.
  6. From the two years field trial based on the economic seeding (summer 1983-1984) to study the effect of cut seed (half the portion removed) on germination and yield of groundnut, it was observed that pod yield was not affected in GAUG 1, JL-24, Kisan, MH 1, and RG 15 as compared to other varieties tested.
  7. During kharif 1985 and 1986, maximization trialswere conducted to compare the superiority of proven technology (recommended practice) with the farmers’ practice in groundnut cultivation. It was revealed that recommended package of practices showed higher pod yield ranging 32-46% over the farmers’ practice. Total return was also higher when proven technology was adopted.
  8. The interactions between fertilizer × time of sowing and fertilizers × time of sowing × population density were found to have significant effect on pod yield and economic returns over the kharif
  9. To identify the most critical production factors contributing high yield in kharif groundnut, field trials have been conducted over continuous three years (1989-91). Results indicated that pre-monsoon sowing was the most critical factor towards more yield and net return in the kharif sown crops.
  10. To study the yield variation through plant population in groundnut a field experiment was conducted over three years (1992-94) by taking seeds of different maturity (immature seeds to over-mature seeds) groups of spreading cultivar M 13 and bunch cultivar GG 2. It was concluded that the highest pod yield, number of pods/plant, pod weight/plant and shelling percentage was achieved in the mature seeds invariably over the years.
  11. Napropamide in controlling weeds (Monocots/Dicots) was similar to Pendimethalin. However, there was considerable residual effect on succeeding wheat germination but not in gram and no significant reduction in dry matter of green gram and pearl millet was observed.
  12. The pod yield was maximum when dry seeding was done 5 days before onset of monsoon. Seed coating with CaSO4, Rock phosphate and cow dung showed some potential.
  13. Pod and haulm yields of kharif groundnut were significantly higher under irrigated condition over rainfed condition. Furthermore, application of hydrogel @ 1.5 kg ha-1 significantly improved pod and haulm yields over control and was at par with succeeding levels.
  14. Application of 2 t FYM+2 kg citric acid/ha improved both pod and haulm yields of summer groundnut and also fetched higher economic returns.
  15. Application of hydrogel @ 2.5 kg/ha along with integrated nutrient management and polythene mulch were found significantly better for obtaining higher productivity and economic returns from summer groundnut under drip irrigation.


 

 

PUBLICATIONS

  1. Devi Dayal, Basu, M.S. and Reddy, P.S. 1987. Weed control in groundnut. Technology Bulletin, National Research Centre for Groundnut, Junagadh (Gujarat).
  2. DeviDayal, Basu, M.S. and Reddy, P.S. 1987. Weed control in groundnut. Technologies for better crops, (Bulletin No. 32). New Delhi: ICAR, pp 16.
  3. Devi Dayal and Reddy, P.S. 1987. Effect of paired row planting on the yield of groundnut. Indian J Agron 32(2): 183-184.
  4. Devi Dayal and Reddy, P.S. 1988. Groundnut fares well in paired rows. Intensive Agric. 26: 7-8.
  5. Devi Dayal, Basu, M.S. and Reddy, P.S. 1989. Water management in groundnut. Technology Bulletin, National Research Centre for Groundnut, Junagadh (Gujarat).
  6. Devi Dayal. 1990. Response of summer groundnut to mulching under varying irrigation regimes. Groundnut News 1(2): 5.
  7. Devi Dayal, Naik, P.R., Dongre, B.N. and Reddy, P.S. 1991. Growth and yield of irrigated groundnut under different sowing patterns and fertility levels. Ind J. Agric. Sci.
  8. Devi Dayal, Naik, P.R. and Dongre, B.N. 1991. Effect of mulching on soil temperature and groundnut yield during rabi summer season. Groundnut News 3(1): 4.
  9. Devi Dayal, Dongre, B.N.,Naik, P.R. and Reddy, P.S. 1994. Effect of sowing depth on seedling emergence, vigour and yield of groundnut (Arachishypogaea). Ind J. Agric. Sci. 64 (1): 41-43.
  10. Devi Dayal, Naik,P.R., Dongre, B.N. and Reddy, P.S. 1994. Effect of row pattern and weed control method on yield and economics of rainfed groundnut (Arachishypogaea). Ind J. Agric. Sci. 64(7): 446-449.
  11. Devi Dayal, Naik, P.R. and Dongre, B.N. 1994. Criss cross method of sowing for rabi-summer groundnut cultivation. Groundnut News 6(1): 6-7.
  12. Ghosh, P.K. 1995. Scope of groundnut cultivation in north eastern hill region of India. Groundnut News 7(1): 4.
  13. Ghosh, P.K., Naik, P.R. and Singh, R. 1996. Super soil-A possible ingredient for in-situ moisture conservation in groundnut (Arachishypogaea). J. Oilseeds Res., 13: 213-216.
  14. Highlights of Research, 1981-89. National Research Centre for Groundnut. 20 p.
  15. Reddy, P.S. 1987. Weed control in groundnut. Technical Bulletin, National Research Centre for Groundnut. 16 p.
  16. Reddy, P.S. 1987.Fertilizer use in groundnut. Technical Bulletin, National Research Centre for Groundnut. 7 p.
  17. Reddy, P.S. 1989. Technology for increasing groundnut production. Technical Bulletin, National Research Centre for Groundnut. 18 p.
  18. Reddy, P.S .1989. Water management in groundnut. Technical Bulletin, National Research Centre for Groundnut. 11 p.
  19. Reddy, P.S. 1990. Low cost production and protection technologies for groundnut. Technical Bulletin, National Research Centre for Groundnut. 9 p.
  20. Research Highlights, 1984-94. National Research Centre for Groundnut. 22 p.
  21. Ghosh, P. K. and Singh N. P. Soil-nitrogen status under summer legumes – maize (Zeamays ) sequence. India J. Agric. Sci. 64(12):856-857.
  22. Ghosh, P. K. and Singh N. P. Growth and development of maize as affected by preceding summer crops and nitrogen levels applied to maize. Annals of agric. Res. 16(1):82-83.
  23. Ghosh, P. K., Devi Dayal and Naik, P.R. 1997. Effect of seed maturity groups, sowing depth and intra row spacing on plant stand, growth and yield of groundnut (Arachishypogaea ). Indian J. Agric. Sci. 67(8):36-39.
  24. Ghosh, P. K. 1997. An integrated approach of nitrogen management in groundnut (Arachishypogaea). Crop Res., 13(3)565-567.
  25. Ghosh, P. K., R. K. Mathur. , V. Ravindra and H. K. Gor. 1997. Dry matter accumulation, Nitrogen uptake and their partitioning pattern in Virginia groundnut. Indian J. Plant physiology. 2(3):234-236.
  26. Ghosh, P. K., Devi Dayal, Virendra Singh and Naik, P.K. 1997. Improvement of yield of summer groundnut through mulching and criss cross sowing. International Arachis Newsletter 17:61-62.
  27. Ghosh, P. K., Devi Dayal,Naik, P.K. and Virendra Singh. 1997. Effect of seed maturity and plant geometry of growth and yield of rainfed groundnut. International Arachis Newsletter. 17:51-52.
  28. Ghosh, P. K. and Devi Dayal. 1997. Variation in yield of succeeding wheat due to various groundnut genotypes. International Arachis Newsletter. 17:64-66.
  29. Ghosh, P. K., R. K. Mathur., A. Bandyopadhayay., V. Ravindra and H. K. Gor. 1998. Association among biomass, yield, N content and harvest index in Spanish groundnut cultivars (Arachishypogaea L.) Indian J. Plant physiology. 3: 159-162
  30. Ghosh, P. K.,.Mathur, R. K, Bandyopadhayay, A., Ravindra, V., and Gor, H. K., 1998. Association among biomass, yield, N content and harvest index in Spanish groundnut cultivars. Indian J. Plant Physiol. 3: 159-162.
  31. Ghosh, P. K., Mathur, R. K, Devi Dayal, Gor, H. K., and Naik, P. R. 1999. Genotypic compatibility in groundnut-pigeon pea intercropping. Intl. Arachis Newsletter. No. 19 : 53-55.
  32. Ghosh, P. K., Mathur, R. K, Ravindra, V., and Gor, H. K. 1997. Dry matter accumulation, Nitrogen uptake and their partitioning pattern in Virginia groundnut (Arachishypogaea ). Indian J. Plant physiology. 2: 234-236.
  33. Ghosh, P. K., Mathur, R. K, Bandyopadhayay, A., Devi Dayal, Gor, H. K and Naik, P. R. 1998. Genotypic compatibility in groundnut-pigeon pea intercropping system. International Arachis Newsletter. 19:53-54
  34. Devi Dayal, Ghosh, P. K., and Ravindra V. 1999. The influence of seed maturity variation in seed lots on crop establishment, growth and yield of groundnut. Tropical Agricult. 76 (3): 151-156.
  35. Ghosh, P. K., Devi Dayal, Naik, P.R. and Virendra Singh. 1999. Resource –use efficiency and production potential in summer groundnut-cereal fodder combination: evaluation of a new concept. International Arachis Newsletter. 19:55-56
  36. Ghosh, P. K., Devi Dayal, Bandyopadhayay, A., Virendra Singh. andNaik, P.R.1999. Resource –use efficiency and profitability of intercropping of summer groundnut with short duration vegetables: evaluation of a concept. International Arachis Newsletter. 19:57-60
  37. Devi Dayal, Ghosh, P. K., and Ravindra V. 1996. A comprehensive account on seed maturity and plant stand variation in peanut (Arachishypogaea).
  38. Devi Dayal, and Basu, M. S. 2005. Low cost and non-monetary input technology for groundnut. National Research Centre for Groundnut, Junagadh, pp1-18.
  39. Devi Dayal, Gohil P. J., Reddy B. N. Singh, C. P. and Basu, M. S. 2006. VarsaAdharitMoongfaliKeAdhikatamUtpadanKeLiyeUnnatPadhatiyan (Hindi), Kheti (ICAR): 58 (12): 5-8.
  40. Jat, R.S., Devidayal, Meena, H.N., Singh, V., and Gedia, M.V. 2011. Long-term effect of nutrient management and rainfall on pod yield of groundnut (Arachishypogaea) in groundnut-based cropping systems. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 56(2): 145-9.
  41. Jat, R.S., Meena, H.N., Singh, A.L., Jaya, N. and Misra, J.B. 2011. Weed management in groundnut (Arachishypogaea) in India – A  Review.  Reviews, 32(3): 155-71.
1   Dr. A.L. Singh: Principal Scientist, Plant Physiology and Head
2   Dr. K.K. Pal: Principal Scientist, Plant Microbiology
3   Dr. Rinku Dey: Principal Scientist, Plant Microbiology
4   Dr. M.K. Mahatma: Senior Scientist, Plant Biochemistry
5   Dr. S.K. Bishi: Scientist, Plant Biochemistry
6   Mr D. M. Bhatt: Chief Technical Officer
7   Mrs Vidya Chaudhari: Assistant Chief Technical Officer
8   Mr C.B. Patel: Technical Officer
9   Mr Lokesh Kumar: Senior Technical Assistant
10 Mr G. S. Mori: SSS

Major programme

  • Physiological studies in groundnut under water-deficit and salinity stresses
  • Iron and zinc biofortification in groundnut
  • Impact of climate change on groundnut physiology and productivity
  • Influence of fungal pathogens on metabolomes of groundnut
  • Studies on microorganisms in relation to soil health and plant nutrition in groundnut
  • Application of microorganisms for management of biotic and abiotic  stresses in groundnut

Achievements and accomplishments
The Basic Sciences comprise of Plant Physiology, Plant Biochemistry and Plant Microbiology disciplines mainly dealing with the basic and applied research works under the above defined programme, the  discipline-wise major findings of which are summarized

 Plant physiology
  • All the groundnut cultivars (200) released in India and 181 minicore germplasms accessions were studied for various physiological parameters and physiologically efficient groundnut cultivars with high net photosynthesis (PN), chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), SCMR, RWC and HI identified. The genotypes with high PN, stomatal conductance (gs), Fv/Fm, SCMR, chlorophyll contents and VCR are useful in yield enhancement as well as imparting stress tolera
  • All the groundnut cultivars were screened for water deficit stress and comparatively tolerant one identified. Though a number of physiological parameters were responsible for imparting drought tolerance, high SCMR (>40), WUE and RWC Fv/Fm and low SLA (<150 cm2g-1) were identified as the main Of these SCMR and Fv/Fm are non-destructive one.
  • The SCMR at 85 day serve as a rapid technique to screen a large genotypes for their tolerance of water stress.
  • After rigorous screening, the groundnut cultivars for rainfed, early, mid and late season drought were identified.
  • More than 1000 groundnut genotypes comprising of cultivars, advanced breeding lines and germplasm accessions were screened for their tolerance of soil salinity upto 3 dS m-1 during the crop season and the tolerant one identified.
  • The mechanism involved in drought and salinity tolerance were studied in groundnut and integrated drought management strategies involving cultivars, cultural practices, nutrients and organic amendments were worked out.
  • Imposition of 10-12 day water stress during vegetative stage (15-25 days) by skipping one irrigation after one week of germination led to synchronized flowering and fruiting and increased pod yields in groundnut.
  • Standardized the drying and storage methods for maintaining, viability of groundnut seeds. The cultivars with fresh seed dormancy were also identified.
  • Studies on role of seed size on crop growth and yield demonstrated that small- and medium-size groundnut seeds, which germinate better and require 25-50% less amount of seeds per unit area than the large-size seeds, should be used for sowing, leaving the large seeds for consumption.
  • Worked out mineral nutrient requirements, diagnosis of disorder symptoms (deficiencies and toxicities) and their remedies in groundnut. Worked out critical levels of macro- and micro-nutrients in groundnut and yield losses caused by their deficiencies in calcareous soil. Also identified indicator enzymes for various mineral disorders. These information were further brought out in a book as well as manual form for the benefit of researchers and farmers.
  • Lime induced chlorosis due to Fe, S and Zn deficiencies was identified as the major problem of groundnut in calcareous soil causing 40-60 % yield losses for which both preventive and corrective measures were worked out, and nutrient-efficient genotypes identified. The lime-induced iron-deficiency chlorosis (LIIC), a common malady of calcareous soil, was studied in details and remedies worked out. More than 6000 germplasms, 500 advance breeding lines and 200 cultivars were screened for LIIC and several tolerant genotypes identified. Foliar application of 0.5% FeSO4, 0.2% ZnSO4 corrected these in standing crop and increases Fe and Zn densities in seed.
  • For better nutrient utilization and yield, application of macro- and micro-nutrient fertilizers through drip was best followed by their soil applications in the furrows. As seed dressing during sowing, though most of the fertilizers damaged seed reducing germination, the response of copper sulphate, copper acetate, ferrous sulphate, manganese sulphate, and Calcium chloride was extraordinary.
  • All the groundnut cultivars (200) and 181 minicore germplasm accessions were studied for their micronutrient concentrations and the genotypes with high Fe and Zn densities in their seeds identified.
  • Identified various agronomic biofortification methods for increasing Fe and Zn densities in groundnut seed.
  • The role of S in groundnut in increasing yield and oil was established and soil application of 20 kg S/ha S either as pyrite, elemental S, gypsum was recommended.
  • Nutrition and productivity of various seed sizes groundnut were studied for their yield for export purpose. The response of P and Ca was more pronounced in the groundnut with bigger pod size and large seeded one, due to more surface area available for nutrient absorption by pods in the soil, than that with smaller pod.
  • Amongst the various Ca sources maximum pod yield in groundnut was obtained with calcium chloride and calcium ammonium nitrate in calcareous soil. However, lime and ties, which were at par with gypsum, were the cheap sources of Ca.
  • Introduced Bambara groundnut in India and successfully demonstrated its cultivation.
  • Various organic farming approaches were tried and the best suited one were recommended for farmers for calcareous and acid soils.
  • Through multi-location trials studied boron, Ca and P nutrition of groundnut in various soils at DGR, Junagadh, UAS Raichur, RAU Durgapura and Hanumangadh, TNAU, Coimbatore, Vriddhachalam & Tindivinam and CSAUAT, Mainpuri, and established
    • B application is a must for seed filling and it’s quality in India.
    • Identified  P, Ca, K and S efficient groundnut genotypes and Cultivars.
  • Through a multidisciplinary, Inter-institutional collaborative project (by DGR, Junagadh and ICAR Res. Complex for NEH region Barapani, Tripura, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizorum, Nagaland, & Arunachal Pradesh for about 15 years (from 1998 to 2012) developed following sustainable production technologies (cultivars and INM practices, and organic amendments) for groundnut cultivation in north-eastern hills of India.
    • Identification and popularization of groundnut varieties for NEH region.
    • The cultivation practices of groundnut and their potentials in NEH region of India were compiled in a book form.
    • Identification of nutrient-efficient (Fe, P and Ca), high yielding, groundnut cultivars and genotypes for low fertility soils of India.
    • INM practices for sole groundnut and in rice based groundnut system in NEH.
    • Technologies for production of large seeded and organic groundnuts.
  • More than 1000 groundnut genotypes comprising of cultivars, germplasms and advanced breeding lines were assessed for pod yield and their tolerance of acid soils, Al-toxicity, Ca and P deficiencies and genotypes suitable for their cultivation in NEH region were identified.
  • Worked out INM in large seeded groundnut for both acid and alkali soils.

Microbiology Section

  • Developed two effective strains of Bradyrhizobium, IGR 6 and IGR 40 for rabi/summer season which increased pod yields 9-18% and 6- 14%, respectively. These rhizobium strains are being commercially produced and marketed by M/s NAFED and M/s IFFCO.
  • Further two more groundnut Rhizobium cultures viz., NRCG 4 and NRCG 9 were subsequently developed for Rabi/Summer season, with 12-18% higher pod yield.
  • Three Plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolates viz., PGPR1, PGPR2 and PGPR4 were developed, tested at multilocations with 16-18 % yield benefit wer recommended for rain-fed groundnut cultivation as seed treatment in the AICRP (G) workshop held at Dharwad in 2004.
  • Two phosphate solubilizers (Pseudomonads), PSM3 and PSM5, were identified with upto 13% benefit of pod yield.
  • A consortium of beneficial bacteria containg PGPR (Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar V BHU1 and Pseudomonas maculicola S1(6)), PSB (Pseudomonas sp. BM8; Bacillus polymyxa H5), and Rhizobia (NRCG4 and NC92) were identified which enhances groundnut yield by 10-21% in multilocational trials and hence recommended for rain-fed groundnut cultivation. Application of the consortium as a formulation in talcum powder proved to be the best for enhancing shelf-life and efficiency.
  • Four AM fungi Glomus etunicatum, G fasciculatum, G mosseae, and Gigaspora scutellospora when inoculated showed better growth, root biomass and pod yield and enhanced nutrient uptake and mobilization in groundnut.
  • DAPG-producing fluorescent pseudomonads were identified, the seed-treatment of which enhanced growth and yield of groundnut (10-15%) and reduce the incidence of soil-borne fungal diseases stem rot and collar rot.
  • To produce cellulase enzyme from groundnut shell by employing fungi, a solid state fermentation technology was developed and transferred to M/s Paccar Biotech Limited, Ahmedabad for its commercialization in November, 2014. Processing of 100 kg shell at industrial scale can fetch an income of Rs. 30,000/.
  • The proteases enzyme production from de-oiled groundnut cake by employing fungi, a solid state fermentation technology, was developed and transferred in November, 2014 to M/s Paccar Biotech Ltd, Ahmedabad for commercialization. Processing of 100 kg de-oiled cake at industrial scale fetch Rs. 25,000/.
  • A simple process was developed for producing amylase enzyme from de-oiled groundnut cake employing microbes Bacillus cereus by slurry fermentation with which Rs. 50,000/ can be earned as income from 100 kg of de-oiled cake.
  • Techniques for cultivating oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju and Pleurotus eous) on groundnut shell and haulm was developed which can be cultivated at 24-28ºC and humidity (70-80%) with biological efficiency between 30-40%.
  • Endophytes, as inoculants, were developed. The application of root endophytes Bacillus subtilis (REN51) and seed endophyte Bacillus firmus (J22) alleviated salinity stress  through colonization of internal tissues and scavenging of ROS and enhanced pod and haulm yields of both tolerant (GG 2) and susceptible (TG 37A) groundnut cultivars in field. In farmers’ field at Bhuj, the Bacillus firmus J22 alleviated salinity stress of EC 4.95 and prevented 23 % pod yield loss.
  • Application of endophytic bacteria Bacillus firmus J22, Bacillus subtilis SEN51 and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes SEN29 prevented 15-25% loss of yield of groundnut with the application of single irrigation water at the time of sowing. The efficiency of the culture is being demonstrated at Anantapur AP.
  • Deciphered the mechanism of extreme salt tolerance, linked to carbon gain in extreme haloarchaeon, 3A1-DGR. Overexpression of Na-H antiporter, Na-K, and bicarbonate transporters were found to alleviate extreme salinity stress. Besides exclusion of Na at entry level with concomitant uptake of K, the organisms survive and multiply by taking up dissolved CO2 as primary source of carbon then channelized for anabolism via a series of enzymes viz phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, isocitrate lyase, malate synthase, and the enzymes of serine-glyoxylate cycle.
  • Sequenced and released the draft genomes of 16 moderate to extreme halophilic bacteria and archaebacteria to understand the mechanisms of osmotolerance on evolutionary perspectives. Six of these genomes have, thereafter, been sequenced completely and annotated.
  • Complete genome of the genus Virgibacillus MSP4-1 has been sequenced and annotated for the first time.
  • Identified “NutBoost” and “NutMagic” as biofertilizer package consisting of beneficial bacterial consortia for enhancing yield of groundnut to the tune of 15-20%. The formulations are ready for commercialization.
  • Identified DTR11, SRG19, DTR21, DTR24, DTR34, and DTR47 as efficient strains of rhizobia fixing nitrogen in groundnut, under drought stress.
  • Identified highly potent strains of Bacillus thuringiensis var tenebrionis containing cryIII proteins with insecticidal properties to groundnut bruchid beetle (Caryedon serratus Olivier) and white grubs (Phyllognathus dionysius (Fab.). This Bt is being maintained.
  • Genetic stock of E coli and Bacillus are being maintained.
  • Culture collections of 50 groundnut Rhizobium, 10 PSM, 15 PGPR and about 50 endophytes are being maintained.

Biochemistry Section

  • Characterized popular groundnut cultivars for their quality traits. The cultivars M13 and TG 26 showed high sucrose, B 95 and GG20 had high O/L ratio, the AK 265 and AK 303 had high oil content, but low flatulence sugars content and R8808 and AK 303 for higher antioxidant activity. The testa of M-13 and M-37 had higher level of phenols.
  • Among 18 groundnut cultivars evaluated for agronomical, nutritional and physical characteristics, ICGS-76 ranked first in kernel yield, 5th for physical attributes and 4th for chemical attributes, and was most suitable for the hand-picked and selected trade.
  • In general, among various botanical groups the Virginia showed high oleic acid, sugars and antioxidants activities and hence better for snacks food while Spanish had high oil content. The Somnath was best suited for producing butter.
  • The factors influencing oil content in groundnut are genotypes, fertilizer, particularly micronutrients, irrigation, crop maturity, seed size, post-harvest curing processes and oil processing and extraction methods etc. Early harvests decreased oil and protein yields and impaired oil quality.
  • Summer groundnut was found to be good for higher oil productivity and oil quality. However the produce contained lower levels of sugars and proteins.
  • An advance breeding line PBS 29148 (44.2% oil, 35.8% protein and 5.5% sugar content) was identified as a new source of confectionary traits in groundnut.
  • From 1000 germplasm lines of groundnut, five accession i.e. NRCGs 7040 (55.6%), 6999 (55%), 1476 (54.9%), 12328 (54.9%) and 3817 (54.8%) were identified for high oil content which can be used for high oil donors in breeding programme.
  • Characterized mini core Spanish germplasm for quality traits. The accession NRCG 14436 had high sucrose, low glucose and low oil content; NRCG 14470 had low RFOs, low glucose and high oil content, and high O/L ratio; while NRCG 14404 had low RFOs, low glucose and low oil content. The NRCG 14472 showed high oil content and High O/L ratio (>2.0).
  • Among the 118 accessions of bold seeded groundnut NRCGs 2863, 5505, 7276, and 8939 have low oil, high protein, and high sucrose contents and hence were identified for confectionery purpose.
  • The wild species (Arachis monticola, A. cardenasii, A. stenosperma, A. duranensis, A. apressipila, A. villosulicarpa and A. pusilla) had higher levels of linoleic acid (52.7-61.5%) and lower levels of oleic acid (20-40%).
  • A mathematical model was developed to facilitate proper grading of groundnut samples for their quality.
  • Validated Near Infra-Red (NIR) transmittance spectroscopy as a potential tool for determination of oil content in groundnut kernels in a non-destructive manner to save the precious germplasm/breeding materials for further use.
  • A simple, rapid and economic procedure for transmethylation of fatty acids of groundnut oil for analysis by GLC was developed.
  • Epicuticular wax load can be used as a marker for screening of drought tolerant genotypes.
  • A new fungus-induced gene (polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein: PGIP) identified in groundnut.
  • Higher constitutive and induced level of salicylic acid was observed in late leaf spot resistant genotypes.
  • Constitutive level of cinnamic and salicylic acid was higher in alterneria resistant genotypes.
  • Induced level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme was about 2 fold higher in stem tolerant genotypes as compared to susceptible genotypes.
  • Resveratrol content in the range 0.8 to 1.6 µg/g with a mean value of 1.24 µg/g kernels observed in five Indian groundnut cultivars (M 335, T 64, M 13, GG 20 and JSP 39).

There is one Senior Scientist and two Scientists including Technical officers in the unit of Social Sciences.Disciplines
Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension and Agricultural Statistics
Major Programmes

  1. Economics of groundnut cultivation in major growing areas
  2. Impact assessment of improved groundnut production technologies: Sustainable livelihood analysis
  3. Development of statistical models for evaluation of field trials on groundnut crop and determination of scenarios in area and production

Current activities

  • A survey has been conducted in Upleta taluk of Rajkot district during kharif 2011 and the data were collected through personal interviews with farmers for summer crop to find out the socio-economic status of the sample farmers.
  • Farmer perception on improved vis-à-vis prevalent grown during summer season
  • Frequency of seed replacement by farmers
  • Technology assessment and refinement among farmers
  • Organization of visits of farmers to DGR to have round on field-experiments, laboratories, museum, library etc and meetings with scientists for their interaction and more discussions.
  • Economics and constraints of organic groundnut cultivation in Gujarat
  • Different statistical forecasting models were used to establish the trends of area, production and productivity of groundnut crop in 16 states of India to classify the states into different segment which will help the planner to take corrective measures to ascertain the sustainability in production and productivity.



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